Millions of people in the world experience myocardial infarction. Every year it claims a huge number of lives. Moreover, such a pathology can be dangerous both in itself due to the fact that the heart stops working normally, and is fraught with a number of complications. What are the consequences of a heart attack, told Candidate of Medical Sciences, general practitioner, cardiologist Azizkhon Askarov.
Myocardial infarction is understood as an acute manifestation of coronary heart disease, the specialist notes. That is, we are talking about a disease associated with atherosclerosis (the formation of cholesterol plaques on the walls) of the heart vessels – arteries.
“Myocardial infarction develops due to complete blockage of the heart artery by a thrombus in which there is an atherosclerotic plaque,” explains cardiologist Askarov. There are several reasons for this:
- a sharp increase in blood pressure, that is, a hypertensive crisis;
- intense physical activity;
- direct trauma to the heart – for example, in an accident or a blow to the chest;
- an inflammatory acute process in the body, in which there is a deficiency of coronary (cardiac) blood flow. For example, this can be with systemic vasculitis, lupus erythematosus.
“All these pathologies lead to the fact that the heart muscle experiences oxygen starvation. And if this process continues for more than half an hour, myocardial infarction develops, ”warns the cardiologist.
Complications of pathology
Myocardial infarction can lead to a number of consequences that are detrimental to humans. According to Askarov, there are three main complications.
The first is pulmonary edema. This is a condition in which a person begins to suffocate, his lungs fill with liquid, sputum foams, death occurs from suffocation. Due to a heart attack, the heart cannot pump all the blood from the pulmonary arteries, due to which stagnation begins, internal pressure rises.
The second condition is severe cardiac arrhythmias. Here we are talking about ventricular tachycardia (rapid heartbeat) and ventricular fibrillation (abnormal heart rhythm when the ventricles tremble), says the cardiologist. This situation also leads to the death of a person due to cardiac arrest if medical attention is not provided in time.
The third complication of a heart attack is the formation of an acute left ventricular aneurysm (a section of thinned heart muscle). Such an education is dangerous with a potential gap. Moreover, this can happen in a fairly short time after a heart attack – literally within one to two weeks, Askarov emphasizes. As a result, a person dies from the onset of bleeding.
What to pay attention to?
It is impossible to endure a myocardial infarction – it is life-threatening. It is important to pay attention to alarming symptoms in order to see a doctor in time:
- the appearance of prolonged intense squeezing-pressing pain behind the sternum. This can give into the hands, neck or even back;
- pain does not subside after taking nitroglycerin;
- pale skin and the appearance of cold sweat;
- fainting or even loss of consciousness.
It is important to remember that there are also atypical manifestations of a heart attack, when there is no pain at all or there is only a certain discomfort in the region of the heart. Therefore, it is worth regularly undergoing medical examinations, and if negative signs appear, without delay, contact a specialist. In the case of a heart attack, it is better to show increased vigilance and alertness than to deal with the consequences later.
If you suspect a myocardial infarction, you need to call an ambulance. The rule of the “golden hour” is more relevant here than ever. The time from the onset of pain to the time a person ends up in the hospital is extremely important, since the later he gets into the hands of doctors, the higher the risks that the situation will become irreversible.