November 14, International Day of Speech Therapist, AiF asked questions teacher-speech therapist of school No. 2124 “Center for Development and Correction”, expert of the Association of Inclusive Schools Olga Skoblikova.
– Olga Alexandrovna, at what age should a child be shown to a specialist?
– I would recommend not to delay the consultation and go to a speech therapist as early as 2-3 years old. There is an erroneous opinion that speech difficulties will go away by themselves by school age, you can wait. Early diagnosis and timely speech therapy assistance will help to avoid serious speech problems and prepare the child for successful literacy. Psychological and pedagogical councils have now been set up in all educational institutions in , which include qualified speech therapists. Within the framework of such a consultation, a comprehensive diagnosis is carried out and the level of speech development is assessed, and then detailed recommendations are given to parents and teachers. For example, if a preschooler has no sound [р], then with this you can wait up to six years. But, perhaps, he strongly distorts or replaces sounds: for example, he sticks out his tongue when he pronounces whistling [c], [з], [ц], or replaces it with hissing ones – “dog” for “shabaka”, “teeth” for “teeth”. See a speech pathologist immediately!
– What difficulties should be dealt with by the first grade and why?
– If the preschooler does not pronounce some sounds (most often it is [р] and [л]), it is desirable that the sound pronunciation be corrected to the first class. Because with deficits in oral speech, it will be difficult for a student to read and write without errors. For example, if children do not stretch their lips at the sound [у] and don’t round your mouth on [о], but say something in between, then at school, when writing the letters O and U, they are most likely to write “dum” instead of “house” or “kut” instead of “cat”. Someone will decide that these errors happened due to inattention, but in fact, insufficient formation of sound pronunciation led to this. It is also important to teach children to distinguish sounds. We call this phonemic perception. What sound is at the beginning of the word “street”? What is the sound at the end? How many sounds are in a word? If you pronounce the sounds in turn [д], [о], [м] Will the child be able to say “home”? If all speech disorders of oral speech are corrected before school, your daughter or son will master reading and writing without much difficulty and will study well.
What else does a speech therapist take into account during consultations?
The speech therapist examines all components of speech. To what I have already talked about, I will add grammar, vocabulary and coherent speech. Sometimes adults think that the child knows certain things for sure – the seasons, vegetables and fruits, the names of baby animals. And you ask questions, and gaps are revealed. Poor vocabulary does not contribute to understanding the educational material – the student hears the word for the first time and interprets it in his own way. Parents and educators should help children to replenish vocabulary. There are many resources now, including computer technology. This is the case when devices can positively influence our children. In addition, children’s encyclopedias in pictures, art books with illustrations develop speech.
Take the time to develop the grammatical foundations. There are children with a linguistic instinct, initially speaking beautifully and correctly. And there are those who do not know how to coordinate words, pronounce them in their initial form (“I play with a cat”, “I will feed the cat”), skip prepositions or use them incorrectly (instead of “I take a pencil from the table” – “I take a pencil from the table “). And many have insufficiently developed coherent speech. When composing a story from a picture, children greatly simplify it, use, for example, only verbs, do not add adjectives and adverbs: “The girl came, ate, played.” Again, poor vocabulary. Adults are partly to blame for this. Sometimes I hear how parents speak in monosyllables with the baby, taking them from kindergarten: “Have you eaten?” – Ate. “How did you behave today?” – “Good”. And silently went home. I understand that with the current pace of life, adults get tired, children are also tired in the evening, but you need to focus on this.
It is important for adults to set the right example, to provide a choice of speech expression: “Will you go up or down?”. Note that we do not talk about prefixes or suffixes. Nevertheless, we note that words may differ in some part, or they may have something in common. At school, it will be easier to pick up single-root words. On the way home, you can reinforce the words-signs: “Is the weather now cold or warm? Is the tree tall or low? Is the road wide or narrow?” Thus, the child’s active vocabulary increases. This will have a positive impact both in communication and in the perception of the school curriculum.
– No luck, and the first grader came to school with difficulties. Will the school speech therapist deal with him?
– Necessarily. The main goal of a school speech therapist is to prevent and overcome violations of writing and reading, so it is necessary to correctly form oral speech. He will determine whether a whole course is needed or whether self-study at home and observation by a specialist is enough.