After 50 years, almost every second personin world suffers from high blood pressure.
Hypertension is one of the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, which still claim the most lives. Therefore, the fight against them and hypertension in particular is one of the priorities of the national project “Health”.
Norm and disease
According to the World Health Organization, more than 1 billion people in the world suffer from hypertension, more than half of them are not treated. Over the past 30 years, the number of hypertensive patients aged 30 to 79 has increased from 650 million to 1.28 billion. In USA, according to Rosstat, in 2020, 1.368 million people were registered with diseases characterized by high blood pressure.
According to international recommendations, ideally a person should have a pressure of 120 over 80 at any age. There is a concept of high normal pressure – no more than 130 to 80-85. But 140 to 90 and above is hypertension. If relatives in the family had hypertension, it means that a man is 35–40 years old, and a woman should visit a cardiologist before giving birth. Very often, women from “hypertensive” families develop high blood pressure during pregnancy or after childbirth. Smoking, alcohol abuse, unhealthy diet (a lot of fatty, sweet, salty) and lack of physical activity also increase the risk of developing hypertension.
Assess all risks
Hypertension is easy to detect (just check your blood pressure regularly) and control with medication. There is a huge arsenal of drugs to reduce pressure. Unfortunately, many people, knowing that they have high blood pressure, are treated on their own. It is not right. To avoid complications, it is important to undergo an examination as soon as possible. If the doctor has ruled out all other causes of high blood pressure (for example, abnormalities in the functioning of the kidneys), then a diagnosis of “hypertension” is made.
Recently, the possibilities of diagnostics have expanded. Angiography, coronary angiography, duplex scanning of arteries and stress testing are available to patients. Therefore, today it is possible not only to assess the presence of risk factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, but also to identify atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease and other diseases. Thanks to the Healthcare national project, polyclinics and specialized hospitals are being equipped with the necessary equipment. By 2024, at least 140 vascular centers and 470 primary vascular departments will be provided with modern medical equipment.
If hypertension has already led to a heart attack, stroke, coronary heart disease, then secondary prevention is necessary to prevent the recurrence of cardiovascular complications. This includes not only modern operations (for example, to install stents in blood vessels), but also drug therapy. Therefore, there is a program of preferential drug provision. People who have suffered a heart attack, stroke, coronary artery bypass grafting, who developed a heart rhythm disorder, receive medications for 2 years. This increases the effectiveness of treatment and reduces the likelihood of a second cardiovascular catastrophe.
Thus, in 2021, under the national project “Healthcare”, as part of the fight against cardiovascular diseases, 596,000 high-risk patients under dispensary observation are provided with preferential drugs.
By the way
How to measure pressure correctly?
Take a comfortable position. Lean on the back of a chair, relax, do not cross your legs. For the first time, it is better to measure the pressure on both hands and then choose the one on which the readings are higher. Measure the pressure 2 times with an interval of 2 minutes. The average value will be your pressure.
To check how likely it is to encounter arterial hypertension, the test available at the link: national projects.rf/hypertension will help.
6 steps from hypertension
- Eat at least 400-500 g of vegetables and fruits per day.
- Limit salt in the diet to 5 grams per day (teaspoon), salt in prepared foods also counts.
- Increase physical activity.
- Try to reduce body weight if you have excess.
- Limit alcohol.
- Quit smoking.
6 questions to ask your doctor about hypertension
Responsible cardiologist, internist, candidate of medical sciences, associate professor of the Department of Internal Diseases with a course of cardiology and functional diagnostics named after A.I. Moiseev Medical Institute of RUDN University Denis Medvedev.
If blood pressure rises, is it hypertension?
The numbers on the tonometer are just an excuse to go to the doctor. The diagnosis of “hypertension” can only be made by a specialist. There are hypertension and secondary hypertension, which is associated with any disease. In the latter case, it is necessary to treat the disease in order to normalize the pressure.
Can you ignore high blood pressure?
Most often, hypertension is accompanied by headache, flashing “flies” before the eyes, dizziness, nausea, vomiting is possible. However, there is also “silent” hypertension, when people do not feel the increase in pressure. And since nothing bothers, many believe that there is no need to be treated. Therefore, “silent” hypertension is the most dangerous.
What happens if hypertension is not treated?
To date, it has been precisely established that hypertension is also associated with disruption of hormones (the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system). Incorrect work of these hormones, periodically or constantly high pressure figures lead to increased stiffness of blood vessels. The stiffer the vessel, the less physiologically blood flows through it, the more fragile it is, the more serious the risk of heart attacks, strokes, kidney failure and brain diseases.
If I drank a course of pills and the pressure returned to normal, can I no longer be treated?
No. Therapy is lifelong, with periodic correction of prescribed drugs by a doctor. Reducing pressure figures is not an end in itself. In the first place is the task – to block the improper functioning of hormones and prevent the development of further, associated with hypertension, clinical conditions – heart attacks, strokes, kidney failure, etc.
Why does it get worse when you start taking blood pressure medication?
The most common reason is that the patient has been walking with high blood pressure for a long time, got used to it, the vessels have adapted. When the pressure decreases or normalizes, the difference can give such symptoms: headaches, discomfort, dizziness. It does not last so long – from a day to 3-4 days. Be sure to inform the doctor about complaints. But you can not refuse drugs, you need to wait until the body gets used to normal pressure again.
If you constantly take medicines, will the liver and kidneys suffer?
The body suffers more from hypertension than from drugs. In addition, when the patient is taking drugs, the doctor periodically prescribes tests to check the functions of the liver, kidneys, etc. If the tests are normal, then there is no point in stopping the drugs. If there are deviations, the doctor corrects the therapy.