The existing own internal experience contributes to the memorization of a new image, depending on the visual, auditory or kinesthetic modality:
- visual modality is due to memory associated with the memorization, preservation and reproduction of visual images;
- auditory modality is provided by auditory memory associated with the sounds stored in it;
- kinesthetic modality stores and actualizes various movements, touches, smells, taste sensations.
In psychology, for the first time the phenomenon of figurative memorization was described in 1907 by the Serbian scientist Viktor Urbanchich. Large studies in this area were carried out at the German school of Erik Jensch in 1933. Representatives of the Marburg school came to the conclusion that eidetism is a natural phenomenon for preschoolers and younger schoolchildren.
The theory has also interested Russian researchers. L. S. Vygotsky repeated the experiments of Erik Jensch in his laboratory. The research was continued by Sergey Rubinshtein, Boris Teplov, Fedor Shemyakin, Alexander Luria, and others. Since 1936, work on the study of eidetics was stopped in the USSR due to its recognition as a racist and unscientific theory.
Now many psychologists and educators are showing scientific interest in the development system of a special type of figurative memory, attention and imagination. The basic principles of the method and the techniques used were described in detail in his writings by Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences I. Yu. Matyugin.
Benefit and harm
Eidetic is of great benefit to children who are able, using images, to easily memorize and develop their cognitive abilities. Instead of memorizing, they can quickly and efficiently learn new material. It facilitates the study of foreign languages, memorization of formulas, multi-valued numbers, terms. The process takes place in the joyful and positive tension of the child.
Eidetics helps to harmoniously develop both hemispheres of the baby’s brain. It contributes to the concentration of attention, the development of non-standard thinking and fantasy, increased imagination, increased efficiency. Eidetics guarantees easy memorization of any information, while psychological stereotypes are removed.
Failure to correctly evoke eidetic images can lead to serious consequences and cause significant harm. In psychology, cases of nervous overstrain are described with persistent attempts to evoke the necessary image.
It is necessary to competently reproduce it and be able to get rid of an unnecessary image in a timely manner, mentally dissolve it.
Eidetics is interesting because in the absence of an object or phenomenon in the field of perception, a person feels it, smells it and sees color. In psychology, there are ideas about the terms associated with this type of memorization.
The term means a kind of figurative memory, expressed in the preservation of vivid images of previously perceived objects in their absence. The tendency to eidetism can be laid down by genetics or features of brain development. Scientists are sure that everyone has the makings, but due to various circumstances, they are lost over the years. With age, it becomes difficult for most people to reproduce in detail tactile, visual or sound images.
Only 3% of the world’s population is born with a phenomenal memory. Other people have the opportunity to develop thinking and memory with the help of eidetics. Often the phenomenon is called visual or photographic memory. Images are imprinted in memory for a long time and are scrolled at any time like a video, with reproduction of the smallest details.
A feature of eidetic images is the perception of objects in their absence. Stability, distinctness of the images stored in memory remains for a long time. Having ceased to be the main form of memory processes, they remain in the imagination and fantasy. This changes the main psychological function.
Synthesis, analysis, generalization, comparison when processing any information, people with eidetic thinking allow people to pay attention to small details and keep them in memory. In the future, they actively use the saved images.
Many eminent mathematicians have had this mindset. In the modern world, it comes in handy when working with information technology.
Vivid fantasy enables the individual to imagine clearly images that he has never seen before. A person with an eidetic imagination can well imagine a breath of wind, feel some kind of aroma, feel a coolness, or feel someone’s touch on his skin, as if it were happening in reality.
In psychology, there are many methods for developing memory, imaginative thinking, attention and imagination. A huge number of exercises have been developed for them. Acroverbal technique involves memorizing concepts with the help of interesting texts, rhymes and songs. Methods are used in teaching children foreign languages. There are interesting poems for preschoolers. For example, when kids need to remember the days of the week. A fun game turns memorization into an involuntary process.
Mnemotechnics and eidotechnics are widely used. The first technique includes methods associated with the use of associative series, logical patterns, alphanumeric code. There are also less popular mnemotechnical methods of rational repetition and FOCUS (orientation, reading, review, main).
Effective when working with children chain method, which involves the use of associative links. The technique for children involves performing exercises in a playful way. It is based on color, tactile, object, sound, olfactory, taste, graphic and free associations. Often, in the development of the imagination of children, geometric shapes are used. During the development of associative thinking, the child must answer what he thought.
Eidetic exercises are used with children three years of age and older.
Proper organization of learning motivates children to learn new information.
- Color associations arise in a child at the moment of looking at a spot of a certain color.. The kid must justify his answer. For example, looking at a red spot, someone imagined a ripe tomato. He replies something like this: “I thought about the red tomato, because it is already ripe.” Another child remembered the traffic signal forbidding. Some children imagined themselves while walking with their cheeks rosy from frost.
- With the development of tactile memory, special cards are made with different textures.. Used fur, flannel, velor, leatherette surface, sandpaper. Use cards with sewn on buttons, glued matches, pieces of wire or buckwheat. Touching the surface, the child must say what he thought. For example, touching buckwheat, the baby says: “I thought about the river, because I walked barefoot on the pebbles. When you press hard with your fingers on the croup, it hurts as much as bare feet on the river bank.
- Subject associative series should cause different things: a piece of fabric or leather, a thread, a shell, a coin, a bump, a button, a piece of paper, etc. For example, someone associates a piece of fleecy fabric with cut grass on a lawn.
- Recorded noise or sound is used to develop auditory memory. They turn on an audio recording with the noise of a household appliance, natural sound, a piece of music or a street rumble and invite the children to choose the right item in the pictures. For example, a child, listening to a car braking sharply, says: “I thought about the door because it creaks when it is opened.”
- For the development of olfactory memory, it is necessary to stock up on boxes with a variety of aromas.. They can contain various herbs, spices, empty bottles with the smell of perfume. Children are offered to smell closed matchboxes. You need to find two with the same content by smell. In addition, sometimes they offer to characterize the smell. Sniffing closed boxes of coffee, a child can say that he smells a fragrant, pleasant, invigorating smell.
- Taste associations advise to use for older children. They are offered combinations of sweet and hot, salty and cold dishes for imagination. Sometimes tactile associations are added to taste sensations: crispy, juicy, liquid, solid product.
- Graphic associations are based on the transformation of a symbol into a specific object.. For example, an incomprehensible squiggle turns into a fishhook. Older students use abstract symbols to remember phone numbers.
- Free association teaches the baby to build connections on his own. The teacher, without using a subject image, reports that a mouse is sitting in the closet. Each child builds his own associative array. Someone replies, “I thought of a cat because she likes to hunt mice.” Another kid says, “I thought of a wolf because it’s as gray as a mouse.”
The main thing in the game is the ability to justify your choice.
Eidotechnics has many interesting methods. In working with children, methods of revitalization, entry, transformation, figurative hooks, co-sensation, figurative thinking, detachment, redundancy, regression, reincarnation, altered modalities, forgetting unnecessary information, echo, etc. are often used.
Let’s consider some of them.
- Animation method effective when you need to remember a large number of names and historical dates. It promotes the development of visualization.
- Entry method allows you to get inside the presented story or picture. With the method of animation, the picture appears before the eyes of the student, and with the method of entry, the student feels like a participant in the event. For example, a student in a biology lesson needs to remember the main features of living organisms. He imagines how he approaches his room and sees human lungs attached to the door, which by their vibration remind him of one of the signs of life – breathing.
At the threshold, his beloved dog gnaws a huge piece of meat, which indicates the second sign of life – nutrition. In the corner, the child notices a large pile of animal feces, indicating the ability of living organisms to excrete waste products. In the other corner of the room sits a cat with kittens, reminiscent of the next sign of life – reproduction. And suddenly the cat rushed to his master, thereby testifying that she could move. And the child remembers one more sign of life: movement, mobility.
Looking at the window sill, the student sees how right before his eyes a small cactus turns into a huge plant, completely covering the entire window space. He recalls another sign – growth. The appearance of flowers on a cactus testifies to the development of a living organism. The student can be reminded about the metabolism of vitamins and packages of glucose scattered on his desk.
And finally, the student sees how the hands suddenly become covered with a rash. He understands that the allergic reaction arose due to the ability of a living organism to be irritable. In the lesson, when answering, it will be enough for the student to mentally enter his room in order to calmly, without straining, list all the signs of life.
- Transformation method makes it possible in the imagination to turn a flat image into a three-dimensional picture, black and white into color, small into a huge one. This method is effective in memorizing hieroglyphs. It is enough to transform the hieroglyph once in your thoughts to remember it forever.
- Hook method usually used when memorizing numbers. For example, you need to remember the number 104. It is enough to imagine a knife resembling one, stuck in a cutting board, on which next to it lies one egg that looks like zero. Away from him on the board you can see an onion, cut into 4 parts.
The imaginary unit can be a pencil or a bolt. The deuce is represented in the form of a swan or a pair of skis. Three can correspond to a wave or a flying seagull. The four resembles a bolt of lightning or a rifle with a bayonet. Five can be represented as a five-pointed star or five fingers on the hand. The six is like an open padlock or a cherry on a stem.
The seven resembles an axe, a poker or a hoe. The number eight is associated with the hourglass and the snowman. Nine can be imagined as a balloon on a string or a tadpole. The image for remembering the number “0” is a ring, a wheel, a ball, a puck, a plate, a full moon, a round plate, etc. This is how hooks are created in the imagination.
- Feeling method makes it possible to perceive an event with the help of the senses. For example, the presence of rain is remembered by the sound of drops on the glass or by the sticking of wet clothes to the body.
You can memorize foreign words or numbers using the representation of color, smell, taste, roughness, sound of the image being presented.