What is it in psychology?
Observation is a quality of a person, expressed in the ability to focus one’s attention on the perception of one object and see subtle properties in it. It is common for an observant person to single out significant details of events that escape the attention of other people. Observation is closely related to the characteristics of the subject and the object of observation:
- the ability to recognize by the behavior and appearance of a person his internal state, mental data;
- differentiation of signs through the physiognomic mask, gestures, posture, posture, gait of the individual;
- interest in a person as an object with the formation of selectivity of perception, the rapid creation of the experience of observing an individual and seeing his mental states;
- empathy manifested in the processes of interaction between people, emotional responsiveness, impressionability, anticipation of the development of the behavior of another person.
Purposeful and conscious study of reality lies in observation. The observer does not attract the attention of others, remains on the sidelines. He notices and evaluates events depending on the target setting, the important components of which are preliminary preparation, clarity of the task and activity of observation. An important role is played by the fragmentation of the problem, the setting of particular and more specific tasks. For the success of observation, planning and systematic are important factors.
FROMThe ability to pay attention to small details is important in professional work. It is important for teachers, educators, psychologists, doctors to recognize the internal state of another individual by appearance and behavior. This quality is especially important for law enforcement officers. Through observation, a professional can draw up a clear psychological portrait of a person.
An attentive person can quickly isolate the main character trait of the subject, easily recognize emotions and characterize his internal state. The insight of the investigator often leads to the establishment of the truth.
Why is it needed?
Observation opens the way to a better understanding of the world. It allows the subject to be better aware of events and facts hidden from the eyes of ordinary people. The ability to notice similarities and differences in identical concepts is a real art. An attentive person has great opportunities for self-improvement. Developed observation allows the subject to instantly assess the situation and make the right decision, helps to reveal the potential of the individual and the gift of predicting their own future actions. Insight is expressed in the art of seeing and feeling another person, foreseeing his behavior.
The ability to mentally make a forecast in various life ups and downs saves an observant person from falling into the tricks of scammers. The ability to notice something new in familiar things is characteristic of writers, artists, production innovators, inventors, and scientists.
All the achievements of creative people are directly related to their powers of observation, versatility of perception, which are often a source of inspiration and embodiment of bright ideas.
Manifestations in everyday life
Observation is closely intertwined with receptivity, curiosity and creativity. These qualities, formed with the aim of knowing the world, are acquired in life experience. They are useful to a person in labor and educational activities, in everyday life. Susceptibility demonstrates maturity. It allows the individual to delve into himself. Curiosity gives rise to the desire to endlessly cognize reality. The inquisitive mind of a child is evidence of this assertion. Feelings and sensations arising from the perception of seen and heard information are manifested in creativity person. The more the subject receives information when recognizing unknown facts, the more his work is distinguished by diversity and versatility.
Curiosity and inquisitiveness allow an individual to notice valuable features and signs in everyday things that are not noticeable to everyone. In everyday life, poorly developed observation does not particularly harm, but sometimes it can fail. An urgent need to develop this quality is required by a person who often interacts with other people.
How to develop?
Observation begins to form during the game from childhood. In the future, its development occurs during the observation of various natural phenomena, the behavior of animals, the flowering of plants. Throughout life, you need to open your soul to new emotions when gaining knowledge. Try to pay attention to the objects around you. Look closely at nature. It is very important not only to memorize individual features and nuances, but also to pass them through yourself. The acquired ability not to remain indifferent to the world around you will noticeably increase your susceptibility.
To test your powers of observation, place 10 objects on the table. Then look at them for a few seconds. Next, you need to turn away and reproduce in memory each of the ten items. Try to describe them in great detail. It is possible to improve professional observation with the help of special techniques, setting specific tasks for yourself. For example, it is necessary to constantly compare and contrast various objects, to establish a connection between them and their interaction with each other. Notice the smallest changes in various phenomena.
Periodically describe the characteristic facial features of your acquaintances. When meeting with them, pay attention to small details, and do not try to remember a holistic image. Look into the eyes of a person, alternately consider his nose, mouth, eyebrows, chin, hair color, head shape. Carefully study the appearance of the subject.
This psychological technique will help you easily notice and remember detailed details in the appearance of strangers.
Try to focus on the various items of clothing you know and strangers. Choose from 4 to 10 details, create a logical chain. In the evening, reproduce them in your memory. On the way to the store or to the place of work, pay attention to the buildings you meet. Count the number of windows and doors, remember the shape of the roof and the location of the cornices. From the details, move on to a holistic perception of the whole house.
Once you enter the room, take a quick look around. Try to take a mental photograph. Pay attention to the size of the room, the color of the walls, the number of chairs, tables, cabinets, paintings. Coming out of there, restore what you saw in your memory. Go back, compare the imaginary picture with the original. Repeat the steps until you get the perfect result. Every evening, replay in your mind the faces of all the people you met during the day. Try to remember all daily events, objects and phenomena you have seen. Daily practice contributes to the fact that a person begins to pay attention to the inconspicuous details of the world around him during the day.
You can train observation with the help of numerical tables. They begin training with a mental arrangement of numbers from 1 to 25 in order in a grid with randomly arranged numbers. This task should take no more than 4 minutes to complete.
Then you can move on to a more complex version of an entertaining table, which is a randomly scattered numbers from 1 to 90. You need to look for all the numbers in order with your eyes. With the help of the table, anyone can test their powers of observation. If a person mentally placed all the numbers within 5-10 minutes, then he has exceptional powers of observation. If you found all the numbers in 10-15 minutes, that’s great; 15-20 minutes is good; in 20-25 minutes – satisfactory.
You can develop the skill of observation by doing very effective exercises.
- Pick up any item. Look at it very carefully, try to remember the thing without missing the smallest details. Then you need to close your eyes, and then mentally reproduce the image. Opening your eyes, look at the object of memory and understand what you missed when you mentally recreate the object. Then you need to close your eyes again and remember the already improved image. The next stage involves the image of a thing on a piece of paper from memory. Compare the drawn object with the real object, add the missing details.
- Try to observe the environment for a month with the idea that you need to capture everything you see with colors on canvas. In this way, Konstantin Paustovsky advised to increase his own powers of observation. In public transport, look at passengers from this position.
Gradually, you will come to the realization that before you did not notice many interesting details, you did not see even a hundredth of the emotions imprinted on people’s faces.