What are the specialties?

The profession of an engineer is quite in demand in various industries, since the job description of such a specialist stipulates the ability of a specialist to create technical documentation and drawings. In each specific industry, the tasks will be set by the company profile. There are the following types of engineering specializations:

  • constructor;
  • physicist;
  • technologist;
  • economist;
  • tester;
  • bioengineer;
  • military engineer;
  • mechanic;
  • designer.

This is an incomplete list of specialties, they may vary depending on the responsibilities of enterprises where specialists of this profile are required:

  • researcher;
  • circuit engineer;
  • roboticist;
  • hydraulic engineer;
  • commissioning and testing engineer;
  • software engineer;
  • warranty engineer;
  • PC repair;
  • forestry;
  • for testing;
  • for ventilation;
  • development engineer;
  • mathematical engineer;
  • defectoscopist;
  • strong;
  • installer.

A variety of specialties arises from the successful combination of engineering with other sciences. So, there is a young direction of social engineering, which combines the main functions and methods of sociology and engineering. A person with this specialty works to study the behavior of people in various situations of a critical nature.

Engineering is also combined with informatics, which has firmly entered human life. This makes the specialty of a computer engineer in demand, whose tasks include technical support for the performance of any computerized enterprise. Consider the characteristics of other engineering specialties.


Design engineers are found in various industries. Their main task is the need to develop a design of mechanisms, buildings or products that are in great demand. The inventor makes a calculation based on his ideas, and then brings them to life. This specialty will be in demand in production, where it is necessary to design various devices, mechanisms, devices and other products, for example, clothes, furniture or telephones. The specialty of a designer in mechanical engineering is in great demand.


This is a group of engineers whose activities are aimed at designing and designing devices of various nature. A feature of this specialty is that all devices developed by these specialists must be based on physical processes. Specialists of this profile can choose different areas of training. They will be in demand in engineering physics and will be able to conduct research in innovative disciplines such as computer science, robotics, circuit and board design. These specialists are also in demand in the IT field.

They are invited to hold positions of computer or network technician not only in scientific structures, but also in most public and private companies.


Engineers in this industry are most often found in manufacturing plants. They are faced with the main task – to rationally organize the production process and take into account existing equipment, as well as design and select new equipment. This specialty can be applied in the food, chemical, light, oil refining, woodworking, metallurgical, printing industries. Each of the productions requires constant monitoring of compliance with the standards for each operation in order to ensure the stability and rhythm of production without disrupting the planned volumes.


Engineers-economists are a specialty that borders between a financial and a technical profile. It successfully combines both directions without highlighting the dominance of any of them. Features of this profession are determined depending on the place of work of the engineer and on the direction of the enterprise. An engineer-economist differs from an ordinary economist in that the work of the former does not relate to accounting and reporting on money. From the economic guide, the specialty took on the need to analyze technical projects, plans and work performed to be carried out.

The analysis is based on indicators such as profitability, profitability, the rate of increase or decrease in productivity, resource costs and payback period. According to the classifier of professions, engineer-economists are distinguished in water and rail transport. The main goal of an engineer-economist at any enterprise is to increase the economic efficiency of work, organize the plans drawn up, calculate the calculated costs and analyze the economic work.


The work of test engineers is aimed at introducing new equipment and testing machines or devices, after which he makes a conclusion about the need for their improvement. This direction is in demand in automobile concerns, in military, aviation and space organizations, companies that are engaged in electronics and robotics. The engineers of this specialty are tasked with taking part in the development of programs and methods by which tests will be carried out, directly conducting these tests, and then processing their results.


These are specialists who study and change the characteristics of living organisms. This profession combines physics, chemistry, biology, genetic engineering and computer technology. Specialists in this area are most often involved in the development of new procedures based on interdisciplinary knowledge. As a result of activity, new technologies are emerging that make life easier on the planet.

Quite often, the professions of a bioengineer and a genetic engineer are confused with each other. A genetic specialist sets himself the task of obtaining scientific developments in the field of biology and medicine.


The activities of military engineers are directed to the creation of combat vehicles, as well as the development of technologies and equipment that will be useful in military affairs. This specialty combines design engineers and technologists-economists. The profession of a military engineer is quite traumatic, most often it does not have stability in the field of work and is associated with regular business trips. Specialists in this area are developing new techniques, which will take into account all modern techniques. They service and repair products that are of strategic importance in the industry, and perform facility drawings.


This group of engineers deals with the design, construction and application of various devices that are of a technological nature. Specialists who have received this education are in high demand in the modern labor market. They can work in various fields. These engineers can produce children’s toys, food products, as well as manufacture unique devices in the field of radio electronics or the rocket and space industry. Most often, modern companies require the following job responsibilities from this specialty.

  • Compile and review technical documentation.
  • Plan the placement of process units and organize commissioning.
  • Control the quality of work carried out during production.
  • Organize the correct work, using modern equipment, carry out its diagnostics and repair if necessary.
  • Provide the enterprise with spare parts and components, consumables necessary for working with equipment.
  • Conduct training among personnel on work on the devices being put into operation.
  • To study and develop a policy for the refurbishment of companies and enterprises, as well as the introduction of the latest equipment.


Specialists of this profile are responsible for obtaining initial information on the project, carry out calculations of a technical and economic nature, link design and management decisions in projects under development. They must also develop drawing documentation, taking into account industry standards. Designers are most often involved in the creation of architectural objects or other buildings, as well as communication systems in them. It will not be difficult for a design engineer to arrange water supply, sewerage, ventilation and air conditioning systems, electrical networks, and telecommunication cables.

An engineer of a specific profile is responsible for each project. Most often, this specialty is found in the construction industry. In some cases, they can be found in mechanical engineering and robotics, and even among metallurgists. Designers differ from draftsmen in that the former must calculate the technical, economic and structural characteristics of the future object and the communication systems embedded in it.

This rule is enshrined in the state standard.


In addition to the above areas, there are also engineers involved in training, security, accountants, transport engineers and other specialties.

The tasks of the training engineer include organizing vocational training for workers and advanced training for the management of any enterprise. The presence of such a specialist allows any enterprise to be more competitive than others. Employees in such an organization always follow changes in science and legislation, improve their skills and efficiency.

The Safety Engineer is responsible for the knowledge of safety procedures by personnel, as well as their observance in the performance of their professional duties. In addition to safety, this specialist should be a labor protection inspector who ensures the correct working conditions for each employee and excludes them from receiving negative impacts from various factors.

The transport engineer should be responsible for designing the transport system. It is also the responsibility of this specialist to ensure the effective functioning of the system developed by him. The specialty is closely intertwined with transport logistics.

A calculation engineer is a rather interesting profession, since his duties include the need to carry out calculations of a different nature. He must check the strength and rigidity of the structures that will be implemented. The profession is very responsible, since a mistake can cost not only large financial losses, but also human lives.

This profession is closely related to engineers and designers, so these professionals often work together or are combined in one position.

The equipment completion engineer is a specialist who is responsible for the provision of equipment and installations with materials and components. He must develop schedules for the supply of these materials to avoid downtime. The main task for the equipment completion engineer is to provide the material and technical base of the organization and control over the implementation of plans for their supply, as well as the quality of the supplied elements.

Category overview

The specialty of an engineer in any enterprise must have a certain classification, which is called the tolerance level. Distinguish between the first, second, third category of specialists, as well as workers who do not have a category. Based on this information, the working conditions of the future engineer, as well as his salary, are determined.

Specialists who do not have a category perform only simple tasks. They don’t have to make different decisions without qualified engineers.

Engineers of the 3rd category cope with the tasks of an unskilled worker, they are required to develop simple drawings, not make decisions and do their work under the supervision of a specialist of the first category.

The second category of engineers receives permission and the ability to develop drawings for some parts and small equipment with a simple structure, as well as assemble these parts.

Engineers of the first category are most often the heads of this department, monitor the implementation of all tasks, and are also responsible for the correctness of drawings and calculations. They are responsible for optimizing the existing plant systems.

Engineering specialists receive a category level by passing a specialized certification. Dates may be set by a government agency or by independent commissions hired by companies.

After working in a position in his specialty for a certain period, an engineer can apply for an increase in his professionalism and a higher category. Most often this happens every 3 years.

The engineering specialty has always been and will be quite in demand in the labor market, but it requires a lot of effort to obtain the relevant knowledge and experience. The competitiveness of specialists is based on their skills and awareness of the latest discoveries in various fields.