Many do not know how a teacher differs from a teacher, and believe that these are synonyms. In fact, these are different positions. At the same time, both specialists can be called a teacher – this will not be a mistake. A teacher can work at a school and other general education institutions of primary or secondary level. The activity of such a specialist involves not only the transfer of knowledge, but also has an educational character. Almost all teachers are also class teachers, conduct developmental activities for children, monitor their progress and behavior. The teaching profession involves working in secondary specialized educational institutions – colleges, technical schools or universities.

The teacher presents students with material for study, gives assignments and evaluates the work done. This specialist is not engaged in education. Although in some cases a teacher may also be a curator in a college if he teaches underage students. In this case, his duties are similar to the activities of the class teacher of older students. The teacher also introduces students to scientific activities so that they can participate in conferences, implement their projects, and publish articles.

At the same time, the teacher is engaged in self-education – conducts research, develops his own methods, can get a degree and move up the career ladder.


Pros and cons

Every profession has advantages and disadvantages. The activity of the teacher is attractive in its own way.

    • The position provides an opportunity to engage in science. You can conduct research and implement your ideas. Large universities have their own laboratories and other facilities necessary for practical experiments.


    • If your ideas deserve attention, you can apply and get a grant. Government institutions provide good funding.


    • You can take part in various events, speak at conferences. This is not only an exchange of experience with colleagues, but also an opportunity to travel – such meetings are often held abroad.


    • Among the students you can find interesting interlocutors with original views, also interested in scientific activities.


    • A good teacher usually uses respect in society.


The biggest disadvantage is low income. Large metropolitan universities offer good salaries, but things are worse in the regions. Often teachers have to look for additional sources of income, for example, tutoring. And also among the minuses is a high psychological burden. Working with people requires patience, and among colleagues there can be problematic individuals. Over time, some professionals become frustrated by the lack of interest from students.

Another problem is irregular working hours. In addition to the full rate, there are usually extracurricular activities, scientific research, participation in any events. It also takes a lot of time to fill out various documents and reports.



There are various positions that involve teaching at a university. You can’t get a job like this with just a bachelor’s degree. The applicant must complete a master’s degree. For career advancement, you should enroll in graduate school, and then try to get a degree.

In a university or higher school, positions have a certain hierarchy.

    • Assistant. You can become one with a master’s or specialist diploma and experience in teaching, or after graduating from graduate school. This specialist helps professors – advises students, conducts laboratory and practical classes with them, is present at tests or exams.


    • Senior Lecturer. You can get this position with a three-year teaching experience or a PhD degree. The teacher not only gives lectures, but also develops methods and manuals.


    • Docent. This position is available for candidates of sciences who are active: they are researchers, publish articles and their works, speak at conferences.


    • Professor. This is the highest position, for which you need to make a lot of effort. A specialist must have the title of Doctor of Science, a number of published works and monographs, as well as at least 5 years of teaching experience.


An associate professor can also apply for the position of head of the department if he wants to try himself in a leadership position. Professors can be appointed dean of the faculty or rector of the university.


You can also divide specialists into categories depending on what subject they teach.

    • General educational disciplines. These are compulsory subjects for all students. These include mathematics, English, philosophy, history, physical education. Other directions may be added depending on the order in a particular educational institution.


    • profile disciplines. They give knowledge directly in the specialty chosen by the student. For example, future lawyers will definitely have various legal disciplines, the study of social science, sociology. Economists have management, doctors have anatomy, and artists have the history of arts and crafts and design.


    • Disciplines by specialization. They are aimed at an in-depth study of the chosen direction. For example, psychology can be a general discipline for a number of courses, and its varieties – children’s, age, criminal – will already be specialized.


In addition, the teacher can supervise the university circle for students – in robotics, chess, a foreign language and other areas. In addition, a specialist can conduct courses for applicants who wish to enter this educational institution. Often these are practical classes necessary for passing a creative competition: the basics of drawing, ballet, vocals.

Job description

The teacher has a number of duties and rights. All these points are prescribed in the job description, which the applicant can read before hiring. Depending on the position, the requirements may differ, for example, they will be different for an assistant and associate professor, but there are some general provisions.


There are state educational standards – they regulate the activities of the teacher. The specialist must also:

    • to promote the formation of professional skills in students;


    • use the most effective methods and technologies;


    • participate in the development of educational programs;


    • respect the rights and freedoms of students;


    • improve professional qualifications in a timely manner.


An important role for the position of a teacher is played by perceptual activity, which includes the ability to correctly perceive and evaluate the psychological state of the student and his ability to see him as a person. This is necessary to build an adequate interaction between the teacher and students.

In addition to the perceptual function, there are other competencies that a specialist must master:

    • informational;


    • controlling;


    • organizational;


    • communication;


    • developing.



The teacher has certain options:

    • he has the right to make proposals regarding the improvement of working conditions, the elimination of shortcomings of the educational institution, the activities of other employees;


    • the specialist may request from the structural units the information necessary for the performance of duties;


    • the employee can get acquainted with the draft decisions relating to his activities.


And also the teacher has the right to involve other employees in the performance of certain tasks, if this is indicated in the job description, and to require management assistance in the performance of professional duties.


A responsibility

The following items fall under this category:

    • the teacher is responsible for the improper performance of his duties;


    • also, the employee will be liable before the law in case of any offenses or causing material damage.


The employee’s activity is regulated by the labor legislation , and the main provisions are spelled out in the job description.


The competence of a teacher is made up of many characteristics. This is not only professional knowledge, but also other qualities. These include:

    • the ability to feel how much the student understands the material;


    • the ability to select the best means and teaching methods;


    • striving for self-learning and professional development;


    • the ability to form students’ motivation, to find an individual approach.


Also a teacher must be able to explain the same material in different ways so that everyone can understand it. In addition, it is important to share experience with colleagues, to be able to learn from other people’s examples. The teacher should be able to control his behavior, switch attention, show empathy. In addition, it is necessary to have developed communication skills.

Personal qualities

Working in an educational institution is not for everyone. You need to have certain inclinations and character traits.

    • Sociability. Activity involves not just communication, but the need to build relationships with different people, find an approach to them.


    • Tact. It is important to show understanding and restraint in certain situations.


    • Patience. It is required both in contact with people and in scientific work.


    • Passion for your work. This is one of the keys to a successful career, because a teacher must constantly educate himself and have creative thinking in order to find new ideas.


    • Responsibility and hard work. Such work requires a considerable investment of time and effort.


In addition, the teacher should have an active life position, do not hesitate to defend his scientific opinion, promote it by participating in various events. For this, self-confidence and adequate self-esteem are important.



Unlike a teacher who graduates from a pedagogical university and goes to work in a school, a teacher has a more difficult path ahead. It is not enough to get only a bachelor’s degree, you need to complete a master’s program and then go to graduate school. At the same time, it is not necessary to receive a specialty at a pedagogical university, the direction can be any. The main thing is the availability of professional knowledge, and teaching methods will be taught in graduate school.

Methods of education can also be different. You can get a specialty in person or in absentia. Postgraduate studies can also provide for distance learning, and more and more educational institutions are practicing this approach.

Place of work

A teacher can get a position at a university. And you can also look for vacancies in secondary specialized educational institutions – colleges, technical schools, schools. In addition, the specialist has the opportunity to earn extra money by tutoring, conducting private classes.