Blood pressure is a point of assessing human health, which has recently been given special attention. Indeed, a huge number of people on earth have such a disease as arterial hypertension, it is also hypertension, that is, high blood pressure. Its danger is often underestimated. But it’s not for nothing that she is called the “silent killer.” At the initial stages, it is not noticed, namely during this period it would be possible to take the pathology under control and reduce the risks of complications. How to understand that hypertension has begun and what to do about it, told Candidate of Medical Sciences, general practitioner, cardiologist Azizkhon Askarov.
Normal pressure figures are 120 to 80 mm Hg. Art. and below, if we are talking about hypotensive patients. The indicator is 130 at 80 mm Hg. Art. is still within the norm, but already at the upper limit. But if the numbers are set at around 140 by 90 mm Hg. Art. and sometimes it is exceeded, here they are already talking about hypertension.
“Hypertension is a condition in a person that may present with symptoms, or may not appear at all (without complaints). It all depends on how high a person’s blood pressure is and how sensitive his nervous system is, that is, whether he reacts too emotionally to everything, ”explains Azizkhon Askarov.
What are the symptoms?
The cardiologist notes that, as a rule, there are still certain symptoms, just not everyone attaches importance to it. So, Azizkhon Askarov refers to the main signs by which one can suspect hypertension in oneself:
- mild dizziness;
- flashing flies before the eyes;
- a feeling of flushing or heat in the face;
When such signals appear, especially if they are not isolated, you should not attribute everything to fatigue and overwork, as well as experiences. It is better to start listening to yourself and make it a rule to regularly measure pressure.
What factors provoke?
It is important to remember that special attention should be paid to your well-being if there are risk factors for the development of hypertension. They, as the cardiologist Askarov says, are of two types – non-modifiable (unchangeable) and modifiable (changeable).
The first is usually:
- Person’s age: This refers to men over the age of 50 and women over the age of 55.
- Gender of a person: men are more prone to this problem.
- Heredity: if it is burdened, the risks increase.
“However, the presence of such factors does not mean the development of hypertension in 100% of cases. As a rule, they are aggravated under the influence of modifiable risk factors,” warns Azizkhon Askarov.
To what a person can influence in order to reduce their risks of developing arterial hypertension, Azizkhon Askarov lists:
- being overweight or even obese;
- low physical activity (physical inactivity);
- bad habits – smoking, alcohol abuse;
- excess salt in the diet – its consumption is more than 5 grams per day;
- high blood sugar or even diabetes;
- high cholesterol.
Emotional stress is also often added here, the cardiologist adds.
Accordingly, if there are all these predisposing factors, you should listen to your body signals even more carefully and not delay visiting a specialist.
How is the diagnosis made?
At the appointment, the doctor (therapist or cardiologist) will perform a whole range of measures – take an electrocardiogram, conduct a survey, collect complaints, perform auscultation of the heart and large vessels, prescribe a minimum set of tests (blood and urine), by which pathological changes can be detected. He will also offer an examination by an ophthalmologist who will look at the condition of the vessels of the fundus, warns Azizkhon Askarov.
Based on the results of this complex, a decision will be made on the management and treatment of the patient. “If a person has modifiable risk factors – for example, he smokes or is overweight, within two to three months he can try to eliminate them, and then, perhaps, medical treatment is not immediately required. But if a person has high pressure numbers, not even 140 to 90 mm Hg. st, and 170-180 and there is a pronounced violation of the condition, such as severe headaches, fatigue, fatigue, shortness of breath when walking, and there is damage to target organs (heart in the form of left ventricular hypertrophy, kidneys in the form of chronic kidney disease, eyes in the form of retinopathy), then treatment begins immediately, ”the specialist notes.
What are the complications?
Ignoring hypertension is not worth it, because such a disease is fraught with serious complications. Among the main ones, says Azizkhon Askarov, are the following:
- heart attacks;
- acute renal failure;
- dissection of an aortic aneurysm.
“Hypertension can and should be treated. Also, don’t forget to take care of your health. After forty years, it is imperative to undergo an examination – medical examination, and if there are risk factors, then this should be done even earlier – from the age of 25. After all, it is this kind of self-care that will allow you to identify the problem in time, improve the quality of life and make it long and healthy, ” – sums up Azizkhon Askarov.