Tartar is one of the most common problems in dentistry. As dentists say, at least once in a lifetime, but every person has encountered it. The first mineralization (hardening) occurs after 14-16 hours from the accumulation of plaque. Completely the stone is formed 3-7 months. What is it and how dangerous it can be for the teeth, told dentist, orthopedist, implant surgeon Yuliana Romanova.
What is the essence of education?
“Tooth tartar is formed in everyone – in someone to a greater extent, in someone to a lesser extent. This is a natural process, which is associated with the fact that salivary ducts exit at several points in the human oral cavity, ”explains Yuliana Romanova.
The first is the submandibular and sublingual, which is located under the tongue, where the central incisors of the lower jaw are located. Two more – parotid, located on the sides of the upper jaw.
Ordinary tartar (supragingival deposits), which we can see above the gum, is formed under the influence of saliva on plaque accumulating on the teeth. After all, along with saliva, trace elements are produced, for example, the same calcium. It provokes the mineralization of plaque. The stone is compacted. This is a normal process, the main thing is not to forget to clean it on time.
The second type of stone is subgingival deposits. Such a stone is worse than supragingival one, Yuliana Romanova notes. “This is due to the fact that we do not see it, but it provokes inflammation of the gums. Such a stone usually forms either if a person has accumulated a lot of ordinary stone and it spreads deeper, or if a person has a lot of old fillings and crowns with overhanging edges, which provoke the accumulation of plaque not above the gum, but deeper, ”explains the dentist.
How to recognize?
Yuliana Romanova notes that it is usually easy to recognize tartar even in oneself. It is enough to tilt your head down, open your mouth wide and look into the mirror. The stone feels rough, the consistency is very dense. You can feel it with your tongue.
A subgingival calculus is worse than a supragingival calculus, as more manipulations are required to remove it. Such stones are denser, even ultrasound does not take them. To remove them, special devices are required – they also work according to the ultrasonic principle, but the oscillation frequency is different. In addition, manual cleaning with special tools is also required. After cleaning, doctors polish the surfaces and treat them with antiseptics so that plaque does not form for some time.
What is dangerous?
The stone is not just a cosmetic defect. Subgingival calculus provokes the destruction of the periodontal ligament surrounding the tooth. “Due to this, a gap appears between the gum and the tooth, the so-called periodontal pocket, where food is constantly clogged. It is worth remembering that this periodontal ligament is not restored. Therefore, a person remains with such pockets forever and he has to constantly use an irrigator, ”warns Yuliana Romanova.
Supragingival plaque, says the dentist, carries with it three dangers:
- Since such a stone is uneven and rough, it provokes an even greater accumulation of plaque both on its surface and around it. Therefore, after removing such a deposit on the jaw, doctors often find carious cavities under it.
- Such a stone leads to the formation of subgingival, which provokes periodontitis (inflammation of the tissues surrounding the tooth).
- Tartar provokes inflammation in the gum area, the integrity of the periodontal ligament is also violated, and after the removal of plaque, a person often forms gaps between the teeth that were previously occupied by a stone in such a situation. If the periodontal ligament is not closed, such triangles between the teeth will close on their own in a couple of days. But if the ligament is destroyed, they will remain forever, against this background, the roots are exposed.
What factors provoke the development of a stone?
- Crowding of teeth. If they are uneven, then this area is more difficult to process, and there will be more stones here. It is imperative to monitor such areas, use toothbrushes, threads and other means. You should also visit a specialist for professional hygiene at least once a year.
- Availability of different designs. We are talking, for example, about braces. Due to the presence of a large number of elements, they lead to additional accumulation of plaque.
- Tongue piercing. If the tongue is pierced, part of the rod with the ball enters the sublingual region. Plaque is formed directly on the ball itself. Behind him, too, need regular care – periodically it must be removed and cleaned. But not everyone does this.
Among the general criteria affecting the development of the stone, the following factors:
- violation of mineral metabolism in the body, when a lot of calcium is washed out;
- hormonal disorders, for example, problems of the thyroid, parathyroid glands and adrenal glands.
How to cope?
First of all, emphasizes Yuliana Romanova, it is necessary to remove, if possible, provoking factors. “If, for example, it is crowding of teeth, you need to follow it hygienically correctly, treat it with an orthodontist,” Yuliana Romanova advises.
If we are talking about the construction of an orthopedist, then proper hygienic care is enough.
If the problem lies in the crowns or fillings, then you need to either change the design or adjust it. “To understand that there is a problem is simple. It is enough to hold the floss between the teeth, if it breaks or fluffs up, then there is an area with a defect. Accordingly, plaque and even subgingival deposits will accumulate here, ”says the specialist.
In this case, you must definitely use an irrigator, without it this area cannot be processed in any way – brushes and brushes will not enter this area.
Of course, regular professional hygiene is required. After all, it is impossible to remove the stone on your own, Yuliana Romanova notes.