A new study, published in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, aimed to investigate the relationship between coffee consumption and the risk of developing cardiovascular pathologies. Also, experts looked at how the drink affects life expectancy.

The findings were surprising: scientists noted that the use of ground, instant and even decaffeinated coffee should be considered as part of a healthy lifestyle.

The study examined the relationship between coffee types and the occurrence of arrhythmia, cardiovascular pathologies and death. Based on data from the British Biobank among adults aged 40-69 years. Cardiovascular diseases were understood in this work as coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure and ischemic stroke.

In total, 449,563 people participated in the study, who at the initial stage did not have any arrhythmias or other disorders. Their average age was 58 years. Slightly more than half – 55.3% – are women. Each of them filled out a questionnaire in which they answered the question: how many cups of coffee they drink every day and what kind of coffee – instant, ground (cappuccino or filtered), decaffeinated coffee. After they were divided into six groups, based on the number of cups of the drink:

  • do not drink at all;
  • do not drink one cup every day;
  • drink one;
  • two to three cups a day;
  • four or five cups;
  • more than five cups a day.

Most of the participants drank instant coffee – 198,062 (44.1%) people, 82,575 (18.4%) preferred ground coffee, 68,416 (15.2%) chose decaffeinated coffee. As a control group, which in principle does not drink coffee, there were 100,510 (22.4%) people.

Coffee drinkers and non-drinkers were compared in terms of incidence of arrhythmias, cardiovascular disease, and mortality after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, smoking, tea consumption, and alcohol. We took data for 12.5 years.

A total of 27,809 people died during the observation period. All types of coffee were associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality. The risk was most reduced when drinking two to three cups a day. Compared with the control group, the lower probability of death among coffee drinkers, depending on the type of coffee, was 14%, 27% and 11% for decaffeinated drink, ground and instant coffee, respectively.

During follow-up, cardiovascular pathologies were diagnosed in 43,173 participants. Again, all types of coffee were associated with a reduced risk of these diseases. Again, the lowest risk was observed in the group of those who drink 2-3 cups a day. Compared with those who do not drink coffee at all, their risks for heart and vascular disease were lower by 6%, 20% and 9% for decaffeinated, ground and instant coffee, respectively.

Arrhythmia during the experiment was determined in 30,100 participants. Here, the risk was lower for those who choose ground and instant drinks. The lowest risks compared to those who do not drink coffee at all were observed in those who prefer 4-5 cups of coffee or 2-3 cups – the risks were reduced by 17% and 12%, respectively.

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