Why is it formed?
As Ilya Antonov notes, plaque formation is ongoing. At the same time, it is provoked by several factors.
The first is the composition of saliva. It, in turn, depends on the work of the gastrointestinal tract. Saliva is a secret that is 99% water, and the rest is enzymes needed to break down food and process it. It also contains lysozyme, which has bactericidal properties, and it also works as a local defender of immunity. In addition, saliva contains mucin, which is necessary for the formation of a food bolus, which is convenient to swallow. Molecules split in saliva reach all taste buds, and without it there will be no taste. It should also be alkaline, and if there is a lot of sweet, then the environment will become acidic, and this is a factor in the formation of caries.
The second factor Ilya Antonov calls the diet, in particular products that are distinguished by the presence of organic and inorganic dyes in the composition. Here, dentist Antonov emphasizes, we are talking about coffee, tea, wine and others. This also includes cigarettes. “The rate of plaque formation is greatly influenced by oral hygiene, as well as the intensity of consumption of coloring products,” says Ilya Antonov.
This biological film, which we know as plaque, is of three types, says Ilya Antonov. He notes that it is:
Soft plaque – it forms during the day and night, and it is this that we clean off when brushing our teeth in the morning and evening. The intensity of the formation of this plaque directly depends on the work of the gastrointestinal tract. Also, its formation is affected by a disease such as diabetes. Against the background of problems in digestion or with the production of insulin, the composition of saliva thickens, and it becomes more saturated with chemical elements.
Hard plaque – it becomes the result of excessive consumption of salt and products containing it. It covers the inner surface of the teeth in both the lower and upper jaws. It will be impossible to cope with this type of wear on your own – only professional cleaning by a doctor using an ultrasonic machine will be required here. How quickly such plaque accumulates depends on how often a person eats salt.
Plaque due to coloring products. As a rule, we are talking about the formation of a dark brown film. It covers all surfaces of the teeth, especially they suffer from the inside. How quickly it forms depends on how often a person drinks coffee or wine, smokes, and how well he brushes his teeth. Again, such plaque can be eliminated only in the office of a dentist.
What does it lead to?
Plaque should not be ignored, the doctor notes. If you do not remove it – for example, do not brush your teeth twice a day and do not visit a doctor at least once a year for professional hygiene, the process of caries formation will start. The periodontium (tissues around the tooth) and the circular ligament of the tooth will also become inflamed.
“Tooth enamel itself has a smooth and hard surface that bacteria cannot attach to. If there is plaque on it, then it is porous, and it is quite easy for bacteria to gain a foothold in it. Then they develop into colonies of pathogens. Then they begin to feed on trace elements from saliva and food debris. Such bacteria are dangerous because they leave products of their vital activity that are toxic to the body. These “waste” are highly acidic, as a result, the plaque, which has already been impregnated with this composition, chemically destroys the surface of the enamel. It becomes porous, bacteria are already introduced into it and destroy the tooth itself, ”says Ilya Antonov.
Plaque leads to the fact that the tooth changes color, the gloss of the enamel disappears, the tooth becomes rough to the touch. There is also bad breath. Most often it is a slightly viscous mass – white or yellow, which is spread in a thin layer over the entire surface of the tooth. Most often, the places of its accumulation are the cervical region of the crown, the space between the teeth, along the edge of the gums, around fillings, crowns and other structures.
When the plaque acquires a greenish tint, this indicates the addition of a fungal infection.
If the plaque is not removed, it mineralizes, that is, it becomes hard and hardens, turning into stone. It will not only change the tooth itself and the tissues around it, the stone can cause deeper damage and cause tooth loss due to inflammation.